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Holbox Surroundings
Chichén Itzá
One of the New Seven Wonders of World

Chichén Itzá the gateway to the well of the water warlocks “itzáes”

(mayan: (Chichén) Mouth or entrance to a well; of the (Itzá) Water Warlocks),

The Sacred city of Chichén Itzá was one the most important Mayan Cities in the Yucatan Peninsula and doorway to the greatness of the Mayan Empire, making the sacred city of Chichen-Itzá a true mystery of the Mayan Civilization.

Chichen Itza was built throughout the years and has a clear influence of the different clans that help to build it into the great ceremonial center it became, such influences can be seen with the adoption or migration

This is a Cultural Heritage Zone of Mexico, and due to its importance was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1988.

Chichen Itza and the Cenote of Sacrifices were, and still are, sacred centers for the Maya.

The Great Temple of Kukulcán

The temple has 365 steps—one for each day of the year. Each of the temple’s four sides has 91 steps, and the top platform makes the 365th.

Devising a 365-day calendar was just one feature of the cutting Mayan Astronomers. Incredibly, twice a year on the spring and autumn equinoxes, a shadow falls on the pyramid in the shape of a serpent. As the sun sets, this shadowy snake descends the steps to eventually join a stone serpent head at the base of the great staircase up the pyramid’s side.


The Temple of the Warriors

After the Great pyramid of Kukulcan or “El Castillo”The Temple of the Warriors is one of the most impressive and important structures at Chichen Itza It might be the only known late classic Maya building big enough for really large gatherings.

The temple consists of four platforms, flanked on the south and west sides by 200 round and square columns. All square columns are carved in low relief, with Toltec warriors holding their prisoners; in some places they are cemented together in sections, painted in brilliant colors and covered with plaster.

The Temple of Warriors is approached by a broad stairway with a plain, stepped ramp on either side, and each ramp has figures of standard-bearers to hold flags. Before the main entrance you can see Chac-Mool jealously guarding the entrance to the warriors temple.

Astronomical signs and decorative features on the head of each serpent are carved over the eyes. On the top of each serpent head is a shallow basin that could have been used as an oil lamp.


The Ritual Ball Game

The most fearsome ritual ball games of the America’s took place in Chichén Itzá’s ball court, which is also known to be the largest in the American continent, measuring 554 feet (168 meters) long and 231 feet (70 meters) wide. During the games players tried to hit a 12-pound (5.4-kilogram) rubber ball through stone scoring hoops set high on the court walls.


The Platform/Temple of Jaguars

Located next to the ball game,The figures of jaguars and eagles devouring hearts are said to represent the warriors who were responsible for obtaining victims to sacrifice for the gods.

The “Eagle Knights” were archers who attacked the enemy before all other soldiers fought hand to hand. The aggressive eagles which sculpted on the walls of the platform are the symbol of these elite vip group of archers who stood out on the battlefield because they wore clothing of feathers from the bird for which they were named.

The “Jaguar Knights” were believed to be the army fiercest members, modeled after those found elsewhere in the Central Mexico. They fought hand to hand, with wooden clubs tipped with obsidian knives.

They covered themselves with armor made of jaguar skins and also helmets of jaguar heads. The figures of jaguars represented the soldiers who were often charged with obtaining prisoners for sacrifice to the Gods of city.


The Nuns Building

This building named Casa de las Monjas by the Spanish who were reminded of convent buildings back home. This building called as nunnery,and it is considered by most a residential palace, but scholars are divided as to whether it represents the residence of the founding family of Chichen or a priest’s house, or a council house (or Popal Nah ) structure. The building has five dedicatory glyph strings, one of which dates it to AD 880. The original building was constructed on a 30 foot high platform, with a central reinforced wall and two wings. During a later remodeling, a second floor added and the base was widened. Above the 2nd floor is a mat-weave lattice. The decoration and architecture is typically Puuc Maya so The Nunnery is strictly a Puuc style building. The rubble core walls were originally veneered with indented stepped frets in cubes decorated with beautiful flowers. A sacrificial stone which is in front of this building, and a jaguar throne was found within, showing its continued use also after the Toltec arrival. .


The Observatory “El Caracol”

El “Caracol” or Snail was used as an observatory. The tower is 48 feet high with many windows which allowed for observing the equinoxes and summer solstice.

Venus had tremendous significance for the Maya community; this bright planet was considered a war god and the sun’s twin. Mayan leaders used the changing position of Venus to plan appropriate times for battles and raids.

This tower sits high on a four-cornered but not quite square platform and gives excellent unobstructed views of the skies and surrounding landscape. In particular, it seems to be carefully aligned with the motions of Venus.

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